Verbs Grammar Index Page

The Perfect Passive Tense

Explanation

The Perfect Passive stem comes from the fourth principal part of a verb:

Instead of endings attached to a verb stem, the fourth principal part combines with an auxillary verb, a form of 'to be', to form the perfect passive system. The hardest part is to remember that a fourth principal part has endings that are identical to those of a 1st or 2nd declension adjective. While it will always appear in nominative case, its ending must agree in gender and number with the subject of the verb. So one needs to identify the subject of the verb to determine whether the ending should be masculine, feminine or neuter, and whether it is singular or plural.

Morphology

To form or recognize the perfect passive tense, use the fourth principal part of the target verb and a present tense of the verb sum:

Perfect
Passive

indicative tense
Person Sing Plural
1st vocatus sum vocatî sumus
2nd vocatus es vocatî estis
3rd vocatus est vocatî sunt

Nota Bene: in these charts I have used the masculine nominative endings, in either singular or plural form, with the target verb. But in the phrase mater a patre vocata est, the subject is mater, which is feminine and singular, so the ending on the participle vocatus is given a feminine, singular, nominative ending: vocata est.

Pluperfect
Passive

indicative tense
Person Sing Plural
1st vocatus eram vocatî eramus
2nd vocatus eras vocatî eratis
3rd vocatus erat vocatî erant
Future Perfect
Passive

indicative tense
Person Sing Plural
1st vocatus ero vocatî erimus
2nd vocatus eris vocatî eritis
3rd vocatus erit vocatî erunt

Nota bene iterum:

They have called= vocaverUnt

They have been called= vocatî sunt

They will have called = vocaverInt

They will have been called = vocatî erunt


Go To Perfect Tense Explanation to learn how to form verbs in the Perfect Tense.

J.Jahnige, May 2004

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