The Perfect Passive stem comes from the fourth principal part of a verb:
Instead of endings attached to a verb stem, the fourth principal part combines with an auxillary verb, a form of 'to be', to form the perfect passive system. The hardest part is to remember that a fourth principal part has endings that are identical to those of a 1st or 2nd declension adjective. While it will always appear in nominative case, its ending must agree in gender and number with the subject of the verb. So one needs to identify the subject of the verb to determine whether the ending should be masculine, feminine or neuter, and whether it is singular or plural.
To form or recognize the perfect passive tense, use the fourth principal part of the target verb and a present tense of the verb sum:
|1st||vocatus sum||vocatî sumus|
|2nd||vocatus es||vocatî estis|
|3rd||vocatus est||vocatî sunt|
Nota Bene: in these charts I have used the masculine nominative endings, in either singular or plural form, with the target verb. But in the phrase mater a patre vocata est, the subject is mater, which is feminine and singular, so the ending on the participle vocatus is given a feminine, singular, nominative ending: vocata est.
|1st||vocatus eram||vocatî eramus|
|2nd||vocatus eras||vocatî eratis|
|3rd||vocatus erat||vocatî erant|
|1st||vocatus ero||vocatî erimus|
|2nd||vocatus eris||vocatî eritis|
|3rd||vocatus erit||vocatî erunt|
Nota bene iterum:
They have called= vocaverUnt
They have been called= vocatî sunt
They will have called = vocaverInt
They will have been called = vocatî erunt
Go To Perfect Tense Explanation to learn how to form verbs in the Perfect Tense.
J.Jahnige, May 2004
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